2. An overview of my diving activities as a marine biologist can be found in my book, “Abenteuer unter Wasser. Meine Erlebnisse und Forschungen im Meer” (Herbig, Munich 1986). All earlier books on my diving expeditions (13 titles) are out of print. Together with I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I published a book about shark behavior, “Der Hai – Legende eines Mörders” (Bertelsmann, Munich 1977). It is also out of print and a new, modified and expanded edition was published under the title, “Wie Haie wirklich sind” (DTV, Munich 1986).
3. I received valuable input through the discussions after lectures and during seminars: for the management of Nestlé and their most important clients; for the clients of Nixdorf Computer AG in the sectors trade, insurance and credit institutes; for the managers and technicians of Alred Tewes GmbH in Frankfurt; for the directors of medium-sized businesses at Heinz-Gernot Nieter in Freudenstadt; for the Alfred Kärcher GmbH in Winnenden; for the programmers of IBM in Vienna; for the Wirtschaftsjunioren in Freiburg; for the clients of Peat Marwick & Mitchell in Frankfurt; for EKS adherents in Kronberg, Vienna and Linz; for the participants at the Deutsche Manager-Kongreß and the Deutsche Sekretärinnen-Kongreß in Frankfurt; for the Freiheitliche Akademieverband in Vienna; as well as for the additional student associations, clubs and scientific bodies. I gained important insights and impulses at the Europäische Bildungsgemeinschaft in Stuttgart.
4. Mass is also a manifestation of energy. According to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalent (M = E/C2), every gram of any material (iron, straw, cellular material, oxygen, etc.) has an energy value of 9.1016 joule. In 1932, C.D. Anderson became the first to totally convert mass into energy, and in 1933, P.M. Blackett and G.P. Occhialini succeeded for the first time in converting radiation energy into mass. According to modern physics, everything known and scientifically demonstrable in the universe is some manifestation of energy.
5. Information transfer plays a particularly important role in the overall life process. In the reduplication process, i.e. in reproduction, correct instructions are required to develop the nex generation of conspecific structures (protobionts, organisms). Efficient movement also requires commands to those organs performing the tasks. The more complex an organism and its functions, the greater its “information” content, which is passed on to its offspring. The genome stores this information. From this perspective, life can be viewed as a process that accumulates ever more information, i.e. an information-gaining process (Lorenz). Without energy, however, no processes, no higher development , and no information transfer an take place at all.
6. Accordingly, plants encompass the “autotrophic”, animals the “heterotrophic” organisms. This no longer fully corresponds with the modern systematic framework because the bacteria, for example, are counted to the plants although they gain energy by breaking down inorganic compounds (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia or ferro- and ferric compounds). Plants are therefore interpreted here as all organisms that undergo photosynthesis, animals as all those the acquire energy by breaking down organic substances (oxidation or fermentation).
7. Applying the term “predator” to virtually all animals is clearly suboptimal because it has negative connotations in everyday language usage. From a neutral perspective, however, all animals feed by appropriating “foreign matter”, and no other term captures this process better than “predation”. Symbioses are no exception and will be dealt with below.
8. We judge animals positively and negatively based on two factors: First, on the highly subjective criterion of whether they are useful or represent a threat to us. Second, on innate reactions, as indicated by Konrad Lorenz in his publication, “Die angeborenen Formen möglicher Erfahrung” (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 5, p. 235-409). We react innately to key stimuli as outlined in detail in Premises 3, 8 and 9. We project some stimuli, such as our fondness for small children, to animals with similar features, which we then tend to view as being “cute”. Others, such as those that indicate features we normally associate with healthy human bodies (i.e., “lean”, “powerful”, “perfect skin”), are also projected on animals with similar characteristics, leading to a situation in which deer are “beautiful” and pigs and toads “ugly”. For more details, see K. Lorenz 1978 and I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1984.
9. Over the few decades, the issue of “selfishness” and “altruism” have been hotly debated in the field of biology and especially sociobiology. In his book, “Aufopferung und Eigennutz im Tierreich” (Stuttgart 1941), the well-known zoologist O. Heinroth warned his readers about incorrectly interpreting animal activities and behaviors so that we can “reach the correct understanding of the apparently brutal selfishness in the animal kingdom”. More recent literature: W. Wickler, “Das Prinzip Eigennutz” Munich 1977 and J.R. Krebs and N.B. Davies, “Öko-Ethologie” Parey, Berlin and Hamburg 1981.
10. I presented a comprehensive overview of innate behaviors in animals and humans in: H. Hass 1987, Vol. 4. Major textbooks include: I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt “Grundriß der vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung” (Piper, Munich 1987) and K. Lorenz “Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung” (Springer, Vienna 1978).– Although modern textbooks tend to refer to “motivating factors“ rather than drives and tend to omit any mention of key human drives, this is because most innate behaviors are composed of numerous individual drives. I provided an overview of the most important human drives for businesspeople and politicians in: H. Hass and H. Lange-Prollius 1978.
11. Such displacement activities and stereotyped movements are captured in candid time-lapse films in my film documentation “Wir Menschen” Progr. 12. Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für den wissenschaftlichen Film, Vienna.
12. Good evidence for this is that some innate instinct control mechanisms are not yet fully developed and functional at birth – as is the case in certain organs, for example (the sex organs). It was long thought that birds first had to learn how to fly. Then, a zoologist (J. Grohmann) raised pigeons in such tight cages that the birds were unable to flap their wings. When the normally raised “control” siblings had become adept fliers, he released the experimental birds. They immediately flew very proficiently. Therefore, the awkward attempts of young birds are not a learning process in the art of flying. Rather, the cell structures responsible for controlling movement are simply not completely developed at birth. They can only issue the innate commands once this is the case. For more information on the delayed maturation of controlling nerve structures, see I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1987.
13. The human brain became enlarged when our ape-like ancestors traded their arboreal habits for life in the savannahs after climate changes and steppe formation in former primeval forests. This led to an upright walking position that freed arms and hands for other tasks such as tool-making (see next Premise). The weight of the head could now be carried by the vertebral column, making the powerful back muscles superfluous; they gradually atrophied and the volume of the posterior and upper part of the head increased. For more information, see H. Hass 1987, Vol. 1, p. 172ff and Vol. 4, p. 112ff.
14. K.R. Popper aptly said: “The hypothesis dies instead of the organism”. K. Lorenz attributes human powers of imagination to the “spatial representation” developed in all higher animals. When a monkey leaps from branch to branch, it must “theoretically” determine in advance whether each leap is practically feasible. This ability may have given rise to the internal projection screen we term “fantasy”.
15. For the purposes of this book, which seeks to outline how the psychosplit arose and how we can overcome it, it is of little import whether the artificially created auxiliary structures we use to improve our bodies are viewed as “additional organs” or not. Those readers who take exception to such an interpretation should feel perfectly free to replace the term “additional organ” with “tool” or “aid”.– On the other hand, human progress is founded on such structures, and the functional affinity between organisms and businesses becomes clearer and simpler to understand.
16. K. Lorenz described humans as “specialists in the unspecialised” – which is diametrically opposed to the interpretation offered here. In the past, biology, in accordance with traditional views, has oriented itself according to the external appearances of organisms as our sensory apparatus perceives them. Evaluating the evolutive process from an energy-related standpoint forces us to look at things from a different perspective.
17. Thirteen advantages that additional organs give humans and that decisively influenced human development were mentioned: They need not be continuously supplied with energy. They are more easily repaired and replaced. They can be composed of virtually any material, even metals and a range of synthetic materials. They can be transferred to other persons without losing value. They do not die upon the death of their owners and can therefore be passed on directly to others. They can be put aside and do not burden the body when not in use. They are exchangeable, allowing versatile specializations. They make us adaptable. The individual need not produce them him- or herself, giving rise to all forms of industrial production. Communal organs arise that single individuals could never afford. Luxury organs, as the foundation for culture and art, become feasible. They can be created without altering the human genetic make-up, i.e. much faster. The instructions for their production and use are transferable through language.– There are even more advantages: Almost every direction in which humans develop can be attributed to this one, decisive step. Three further considerations. The additional organs free us from our species-specific constraints: The larger life structures we form can give rise to a virtually unlimited number of entirely different structures. Unlimited information transfer also becomes possible: inventions, such as those made by one company, can find application in completely different business sectors. Finally, money, which will be dealt with later, empowers us immensely, which in turn is a prerequisite for major investments (and also increases our risks enormously).
18. In the year of Darwin’ birth (1809), J.B. Lamarck published his then largely ignored two-volume “Philosophie Zoologique”, which presented the theory that all organisms arose from common ancestors. Both Lamarck and Darwin believed in the “hereditary transmission of acquired traits”. According to this concept, which would greatly simplify the explanation of how species arose, individual adaptations and improvements that an individual makes during its lifetime can be passed on to its offspring. A bodybuilding champion would therefore father children with a similar physique. Despite intensive experimentation, no hereditary mechanisms that would enable such a process were ever discovered. Additional organs, however, do precisely this: not only can new, learned behaviors be passed on to the next generation, but the ability to produce new organs can be “inherited”.
19.Compare remark 8
20. Another reason has also been forwarded to explain the particulary well-developed sexual drive in humans. The human child requires a very long period of care (“brood care”) before it can survive on its own. Such lengthy parental care was inextricably bound to the father’s ability to feed and protect the child. In our early ancestors, this apparently caused our sexual drive to take over functions other than reproduction alone, namely a role in partner bonding. The female was able to fulfil the male’s sexual desires year-round and thus bind him more strongly to the family.
21. According to Hassenstein and Lorenz, such general tendencies fall under the heading of “appetitive behavior”. In the case of feeding, this includes all innate actions and reactions that help detect, stalk, and overpower prey. The task is to optimize predatory behavior, to achieve the “consummatory” or “end” act, i.e. to devour the prey or parts thereof, with minimum risk, as safely and quickly as possible.
22. In 1909, the same year in which he received the Nobel Prize, Wilhelm Oswald, the founder of physical chemistry, published the book “Die energetischen Grundlagen der Kulturwissenschaft”. Unfortunately, it received little notice. He was the first to draw attention to the central role of energy in all life processes, and also assessed business transactions from this perspective. Humans are superior to all other organisms, “through the amount of energy they amass and bring under their control.”
23. Eibl-Eibesfeldt and I dealt with the phenomenon of the “socio-collapse” and the development of anonymous societies in larger cities – along with their many repercussions – in the book “Stadt und Lebensqualität” (Stuttgart 1985).
24. “IRM” is the abbreviation for “innate release mechanism”. It functions by responding to a precisely defined set of stimuli known as “key stimuli” and then triggering the appropriate “fixed action patterns”. For more details, see K. Lorenz 1978.
25. If the dogs were freed from the restraining frame, it turned out that the bell not only triggered salivation, but the entire sequence of predatory behavior, i.e. it triggered their appetitive behavior for predation. Additional experiments showed that virtually any neutral stimulus, if followed by a “consummatory” or “end” act, can be transformed into a “conditioned” stimulus, whereby the term “conditioned” stands for “conditioned through experience”. This contrasts with key or “unconditioned” stimuli, that animals respond to innately, whereby the subsequent behavior is termed “unconditioned reaction”.
26. Recommended reading for those seeking more information on the complex issue of conditioning is the excellent book “Instinkt, Lernen, Spielen, Einsicht” by Bernhard Hassenstein (Serie Piper, Munich 1980). Its many “circuit diagrams” illustrate the key interrelationships. K. Lorenz’s “Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung” (1978, p. 230ff) presents an overview.
27. H. Hass 1987, Vol. 2, p. 97-110.
28. More information in J.B. Wolfe’s “Effectiveness of Token-Rewards in Chimpanzees” (Comparative Psychological Monographs 12, 1936) and Th. Kapune’s “Untersuchungen zur Bildung eines Wertbegriffes bei niederen Primaten” (Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 23, p. 324-363). Colorful, round brass tokens were used as “money”. The monkeys learned that they could receive food for certain tokens, whereas other tokens bought play sessions with the keepers, still others could be used to open the cage after being inserted into a slit in the door. It took time to earn and save enough tokens by strenuously working a mechanical lever. The monkey brain was capable of grasping this situation. The time-span between “earning” and “spending” the money was often considerable.
29. I first published the “semi-predator” concept in two issues of the Eco-Journal in the “Presse” (Vienna) under the title “Eigentlich ein Räuber” (30.10.81) and “Tausch statt Raub” (6.11.81).
30. Directly harnessing external forces can only supplement energy gain via photosynthesis, predation, or transactions. Viruses are an exception: as the most extreme of parasites they survive without any energy gain of their own. Their structure is such that cells, upon passive contact, begin to churn out new viruses. The origin of life is thought to have involved a similar process: In the hot primordial seas, energy-laden molecules could have combined into structures whose mutual interactions would have led to reproduction, initiating an autocatalytic process. A plausible model for this, the “hypercycle”, was developed by the Nobel Prize winner M. Eigen. See Fig. 10.
31. Sociobiology, which produces comprehensive cost-benefit analyses for animal behavior, in particular predatory behavior, applies the term “optimal foraging strategy”. This motivated me to coin the term “Optimal Bartering Strategy” or “Optimal Business Strategy” for the optimal approach to conducting business transactions.
32. Marketing was already taught in American universities in the early 20th century and subsequently applied very efficiently by large concerns such as general Electric, Procter & Gamble, IBM, Eastman Kodak, Caterpillar and others. Marketing was originally a part of the “sales” sector, but gradually developed into a leading management concept determining overall company policy (Fig. 11). Peter Drucker considers marketing to be so fundamental that it cannot be interpreted as merely being “one of many functions”. Rather, it is “business as measured by its ultimate result, i.e. from the perspective of the customer’s advantage”. Economic theorists refer to the “primacy of market orientation”, although in practice this approach, which stands in stark contrast to the semi-predator concept, has met considerable opposition before gradually gaining acceptance in large companies. (compare remark 36)
33. W. Mewes “Die kybernetische Managementstrategie (EKS)”, Frankfurt 1972-1976. This economic strategy is taught in the framework of a correspondence course (Mewes System, Im tierischen Hof, Frankfurt 1).– Many employees and businesses that adhere to EKS guidelines are members of the Leistungsgemeinschaft (EKS) e.V. in Frankfurt, which publishes a regular “information sheet”. EKS seminars are offered at the EKS-Akademie in Obersulm near Heilbron, Germany. Prominent proponents of the EKS include Dr. Josef Meier in Hergiswil, Switzerland, and Dr. Helmut Wiesler in Vienna, Austria. The relationship between business management, the Energon theory, and EKS was examined in detail by Ch. Wurl 1987.
34. Back in 1968, Peter F. Drucker wrote in his book, “The Age of Discontinuity” (Die Zukunft bewältigen): “In speaking of marketing, most businesspeople think of the systematic and well-planned organization of all work required to sell a product, to deliver it to the customer, and to receive payment. What businesses really need in times of rapid technological transition, however, is marketing with an entirely different connotation. The first thing we need is a marketing that views the entire company from the standpoint of its ultimate goal and legitimacy, i.e. from the customer’s perspective… Above all, this means going beyond viewing the customer merely as the purchaser of “our goods”. As long as your thoughts are still centered on “our product”, you remain mired in categories belonging more to sales than to marketing. The crucial aspect is client habits, mores and expectations…”.– In fairness, customer-oriented behavior in the business world was an insight occasionally espoused even by “old school” economic theorists. Yet such guidelines were only rarely put into practice. Why? From the ethological perspective my answer is: because theoreticians develop their theses in a “tension-free” environment in which drives play a negligible role. Insight and intellect can ruminate without outside pressure. In the real business world, however, suppliers encounter the key stimuli “customers” or “money” and the psychosplit directs their thoughts and judgment into unfruitful channels.
35. As early as 1967, B. Spiegel, in his paper “Der Nischen-Begriff in Ökologie und Sozialpsychologie” (G.F.M. – Mitteilungen 13, 3) analyzed the close relationship between competition gradients, environmental adaptation, territory delimitation, and niche control in both the world of organisms and business. The author presented the advantages of “gap-oriented behavior” based on clear correlations and practical examples taken from the business sector. The “patrix-matrix-relationship” he chose to describe competitiveness corresponds well with the “required versus actual performance profile” or the lock-and-key relationship discussed in the chapter “3rd Consequence”.
36. Whereas individuals can very quickly reverse their focus and concentrate on customer interests, this necessary reversal apparently becomes increasingly laborious the more people are involved in the process, i.e. the larger a business and the greater the distance to the actual customers. Philip Kotler formulated this fact as the “law of slow learning” (“Marketing Management”, Englewood Cliffs 1980, p. 11). Marketing “entered the hallowed halls” of large American concerns only against strong internal resistance. This underlines the influence of the psychosplit and the difficulty we have in following up on rational considerations against the dictates of our active predatory instincts. The basic concept of marketing corresponds quite well with the OBS guidelines.
37. In citing EKS case studies I stick to the original texts, which I have merely condensed here. The original versions are often interrupted by a series of closer considerations and analyses.
38. H. Hass 1986, p. 78ff.
39. This “straying from the path” corresponds with the “law of rapid forgetting” formulated by Ph. Kottler (“Marketing Management”, Englewood Cliffs 1980, p. 13). Once market-oriented behavior was successfully introduced in large American corporations and the strategy increased profits, there was a clear tendency to overlook the marketing guidelines and to once again focus efforts on producing in order to sell. Companies that had focused on long-term growth and had achieved significant successes, lost their market dominance by once again concentrating on immediate advantages and quick profits. (compare footnote 36)
40. Citations from H. Hass 1970, Chapters 3 and 5 (1987, Vol. 2, Chapters 4 and 5).
41. See W. Mewes, 1972-1976, lecture series 6 and 8.
42. H. Hass 1987, Vol. 1, p. 224-228.
43. H. Hass 1987, Vol. 1, p. 194.198.
44. Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1987.
45. A good overview on topics treated under the heading “self-organization” both in the inorganic and organic realms can be found in Erich Jantsch, “Die Selbstorganisation des Universums”, DTV, Munich 1986.
46. W. Mewes 1972-1976, lecture series 10, p. 99-116.
47. Under the term “integrative thought”, see F. Vester’s “Neuland des Denkens”, Stuttgart 1983, and “Unsere Welt – ein vernetztes System”, 3rd ed., Munich 1986.
48. J.K. Gailbraith “Die moderne Industriegesellschaft”, Munich 1968.
49. W. Mewes 1972-1976, lecture series 9.
50. H. Hass: film series “Wir Menschen”. Österreichisches Bundesanstalt für den wissenschaftlichen Film, Vienna.
51. Biology refers to human development as “cultural evolution” and the radiation of professions as “pseudospeciation”. According to the view propagated in this book, cultural evolution is an integral part of the evolution of life, and the radiation continues here in the form of professions and business sectors rather than species. H. Hass 1987, Vols 2 and 3.
52. V. Packard, “Die Pyramidenkletterer”, Düsseldorf 1963.
The Japanese approach wherein companies hire employees for life has certainly
contributed considerably to the country’s economic success. Interesting
details can be found in the writings of P.F. Drucker. Information on “holism”
can be found in R. Mann’s
“Das ganzheitliche Unternehmen”, Bern, Munich, Vienna 1988.
54. Teilhard de Chardin was one of the few who viewed the entire structural edifice created by humans – directly comparable with the organs of plants and animals – as “vitalized matter”. See: H. Hass 1987, Vol. 2, p. 271-275.
55. In daily business practice the OBS corresponds fully with the ideal scenarios of the marketing sector. The numerous successes of the EKS, which so closely parallels the OBS guidelines, support the scientific-evolutionary justification of the OBS approach.
56. Numerous thinkers and writers, for example Voltaire, considered humans to be “beasts”. Schopenhauer wrote, “Humans are fundamentally wild, horrid animals. We merely know them in a tamed and controlled condition known as civilization. Yet the occasional outbreaks of their nature strikes fear in our hearts.” Nietzsche referred to humans as “animals that have not yet been cornered”, which in two-fold manner corresponds to the transition from one evolutionary step to an entirely new one.
treated the difficult issue of “happiness” from the scientific perspective
in my “Naturphilosophischen Schriften”, Vol. 4, Chapter 12.
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